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Monday, November 23, 2020

Roll Forming

Roll forming is a high productive technique that is well-established in industry for the manufacturing of large quantities of profile-shaped products. The prevailing technique involves the use of steel materials of changing qualities and thicknesses fed into the machine from a continuous coil. The roll forming line generally includes an accumulator with an uncoiler, the forming machine with in general 20-50 forming stands, and a cutoff press. The accumulator permits continuous operation of the machine even during coil changeover. At the end of the line, the continuous profile section is cut to length by the cutoff press.


The finite element method (FEM) (its practical application often known as finite element analysis (FEA)) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as of integral equations. The solution approach is based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems), or rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations, which are then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's method, Runge-Kutta, etc.

Process Monitoring

Historically, die monitoring meant adding a spring ground probe to act as a short-feed sensor, with possibly an optical sensor monitoring part ejection from the tool. The operator typically located the sensor as an additional step when loading a new tool. Die monitoring requirements were modest, where simple logic monitored just a few sensors. The new scenario in sheet metal forming processes with smaller lot sizes and lead times reduces direct labour and increases part quality but at the same time the added operations in the tools increase the likelihood and severity of die crashes and the necessity of inspecting the parts in the die as it runs for quality assurance. To solve all the above mentioned drawbacks due to the new manufacture strategies new monitoring systems have emerged in the market with some main features: more complexity with higher electronics and automation requirements, larger number of sensors and combining of digital and analogical sensors.

RF Expert systems

An expert system is software that attempts to provide an answer to a problem, or clarify uncertainties where normally one or more human experts would need to be consulted. Expert systems are most common in a specific problem domain, and is a traditional application and/or subfield of artificial intelligence. A wide variety of methods can be used to simulate the performance of the expert however common to most or all are 1) the creation of a knowledge base which uses some knowledge representation formalism to capture the Subject Matter Expert's (SME) knowledge and 2) a process of gathering that knowledge from the SME and codifying it according to the formalism, which is called knowledge engineering. Expert systems may or may not have learning components but a third common element is that once the system is developed it is proven by being placed in the same real world problem solving situation as the human SME, typically as an aid to human workers or a supplement to some information system.